This is a very helpful website, I thank you for the answers to some of the things I've been wondering about. My question:
I am unable to fully retract the foreskin while my penis is erect, and when I do, it only goes as far as below the glans, makes it swell up and causes pain. When it is erect, the foreskin remains covering it, only exposing a small part underneath. I have no problem pulling it back when it is not erect, but I notice the rim of the foreskin puts a bit of pressure on the shaft.
My glans is also painful to the touch.
And what is that little bit of skin connecting the underneath of the glans to the foreskin? Are these things normal?
Are males supposed to have their glans fully exposed all the time?
What is circumcision?
What you describe is medically called phimosis. It is when the end of the foreskin is too tight. There are three ways to correct the problem. See: What can be done about a tight foreskin? for more details.
Because you are uncircumcised, your foreskin protects your glans and you are not used to the sensations of it being touched. For most uncircumcised boys, erections causes the glans to be exposed and they get used to the feeling. However, because of your tight foreskin, this is not happening and you are remaining sensitive.
The place where the skin of the shaft and the foreskin connect to the glans underneath the penis is called the frenulum. It is perfectly normal.
A male who has been circumcised no longer has a foreskin that covers his glans, so it is exposed all the time. Uncircumcised males only have their glans exposed when they are erect or they purposely unsheathe their penis.
Circumcision is the removal of the foreskin from the penis through surgery.